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What is cancer?

Cancer is a disease characterized by the development of malignant cells that can invade surrounding tissues and certain organs, and form a lump known as a tumor.

Cancerous tumors spread to (or invade) nearby tissues. They may also travel further to other parts of the body and form more tumors, a process known as metastasis. Many types of cancer form solid tumors. However, blood cancers, such as leukemias, generally do not form solid tumors. (Source: National Cancer Institute)

Among the most common types of cancer, we can find:

  • Lung cancer

  • Breast cancer

  • Colorectal cancer

  • Prostate cancer

  • Leukemia

  • Stomach cancer

Cancer can be caused by multiple factors and, as in other diseases, most of them are related to exposure to certain risk factors. One third of cancer cases can be avoided by reducing behavioral and dietary risks. (Source: World Cancer Day)

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Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancer cells are also called malignant cells.

Risk factors

Here are some risk factors associated with cancer incidence:

  • Diet and nutrition

  • Sun exposure

  • Smoking

  • Family history of cancer (it may be a risk for a possible inherited cancer syndrome.)

  • Age is a non-modifiable risk factor. Some types of cancer become more prevalent with age or in a specific age group.

Types of cancer

Cancer can be classified according to the type of cell from which it originates. There are five main types:

Carcinoma - Cancer that develops from the epithelial cells that line the inner surface of the body and surround tissues and organs.

Sarcoma - Located in bones and soft tissues, including cartilage and muscles.

Lymphoma and myeloma - Lymphoma and myeloma are cancers that originate in the cells of the immune system.

Leukemia - Leukemia is a cancer of the white blood cells and bone marrow, the tissue that forms blood cells.

Signs and symptoms of cancer

Abnormal lumps or swelling

Coughing, shortness of breath, or trouble swallowing



Changes in bowel habits

Loss of appetite

Unexpected bleeding

Abnormal weight loss

Clinical Trial for Cancer Treatments

If you have cancer, a clinical trial could be a viable treatment approach. A clinical trial is a study that involves people who agree to undergo tests or treatments. Clinical trials help researchers know if a new treatment works well and is safe. Clinical trials are available for many types of cancer and at all stages of cancer.

If you join a trial, you may receive treatment that can help you. In addition, you will help others learn more about your cancer while allowing the development of new tests and treatments. There are many things to keep in mind before you join a trial. Find out why you might want to sign up for a clinical trial and where you can find one.

Clinical trials for cancer look for ways to:

  • Prevent cancer

  • Treat cancer

  • Reduce the symptoms or side effects of cancer.

Leave your contact details if you have: Fatigue related to Breast Cancer, non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, or Colorectal Cancer.


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